2021 EF James Ruffle

James Ruffle

2021 Entry Clinical Fellowship

Graphical modelling of brain tumours

Cancer of the brain is a major cause of death and disability that is rising in prevalence while remaining stubbornly resistant to treatment. Despite intense research, survival rates have remained essentially unchanged over the past thirty years. Other kinds of cancer have seen striking improvements in treatment outcomes over recent decades: why is the brain different? One possible answer is the unusual complexity of brain tumours: the disease mechanisms underlying the uncontrolled, disorganised cell division that is the hallmark of all cancer appear to be both many and diverse, varying greatly from one patient to another.

As with all human diversity, to understand this biological diversity we must first describe it in sufficient detail to render each individual distinct and recognizable. At the heart of our proposed approach lies the idea of making sense of biological patterns as networks, where biological characteristics are conceived as nodes, and their relations as connections between nodes. By way of analogy, the path of a cell from normal to cancerous may be seen as a journey through the London Underground, where the final destination of malignancy is reached via a set of genetic stops defining a characteristic path. Capturing the set of all possible paths—a map of the “tumour underground”—then gives us a means of understanding what is going on, and how the disease process varies from one patient to another. Machines able to make sense of these complex patterns—such as the artificial intelligence systems now revolutionizing the world—can then be deployed to the task of identifying the right treatment for the right patient, helping deliver care that is both personalised and founded on robust evidence. But no framework to deliver it currently exists: our task is to create its foundations, establish its feasibility, and prototype its application.

Currently MRC Clinical Research Training Fellow


Brain tumour genetic network signatures of survival

James K Ruffle, Samia Mohinta, Guilherme Pombo, Robert Gray, Valeriya Kopanitsa, Faith Lee, Sebastian Brandner, Harpreet Hyare, Parashkev Nachev

Brain, https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awad199


Brain tumour segmentation with incomplete imaging data

James K Ruffle, Samia Mohinta, Robert Gray, Harpreet Hyare, Parashkev Nachev

Brain Communications, Volume 5, Issue 2, 2023, fcad118, https://doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcad118


The human cost of artificial intelligence

James K. Ruffle, Chris Foulon & Parashkev Nachev

Brain Structure and Function 228, 1365–1369


Graph lesion-deficit mapping of fluid intelligence

Lisa Cipolotti, James K Ruffle, Joe Mole, Tianbo Xu, Harpreet Hyare, Tim Shallice, Edgar Chan, Parashkev Nachev

Brain, Volume 146, Issue 1, January 2023, Pages 167–181, https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awac304


A framework for focal and connectomic mapping of transiently disrupted brain function

Michael S. Elmalem, Hanna Moody, James K. Ruffle, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Patrick Haggard, Beate Diehl, Parashkev Nachev & Ashwani Jha

Communications Biology 6, 430, https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-023-04787-1


The legibility of the imaged human brain

James K Ruffle, Robert J Gray, Samia Mohinta, Guilherme Pombo, Chaitanya Kaul, Harpreet Hyare, Geraint Rees, Parashkev Nachev

arXiv, https://arxiv.org/abs/2309.07096


Compressed representation of brain genetic transcription

James K Ruffle, Henry Watkins, Robert J Gray, Harpreet Hyare, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Parashkev Nachev

arXiv, https://arxiv.org/abs/2310.16113


Deep Learning for Tumour Segmentation with Missing Data. Neuro-Oncology

James Ruffle, Samia Mohinta, Robert Gray, Harpreet Hyare, Parashkev Nachev

Neuro-Oncology. 2022;24(Supplement_4):iv16-iv16, https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noac200.070

01 October 2022

Identifying Enhancing Tumour Without Contrast-Enhanced Imaging

James Ruffle, Samia Mohinta, Robert Gray, Harpreet Hyare, Parashkev Nachev

Neuro-Oncology, 2022;24(Supplement_4):iv3-iv3, https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noac200.012

01 October 2022

Translating automated brain tumour phenotyping to clinical neuroimaging

Ruffle JK, Mohinta S, Gray RJ, Hyare H, Nachev P.

arXiv, https://arxiv.org/abs/2206.06120

13 June 2022